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Mountaineering is the sport, hobby or profession of walking, hiking, trekking and climbing up mountains. It is also sometimes known as alpinism, particularly in Europe. While it began as an all-out attempt to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains, it has branched into specializations addressing different aspects of mountains and may now be said to consist of three aspects: rock-craft, snow-craft and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice. All require great athletic and technical ability, and experience is also very important.
The mountains of Uzbekistan enter in structure of Tyan-Shan and Alay mountain systems. On territory turn the western spurs of Tyan-Shan and Gissar-Alay mountain system. To south and west they gradually lower and turn to plains.
Internal (tectonic) power of Earth formed folds grown the powerful ranges of mountains.
The mountains and foothills with brook relief, located in east and south-east part of Uzbekistan, where they unite with powerful mountain deep brook massive on territory of Kirgizya and Tadjikistan. Mainly this Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal, Kuramin ranges and their western and south-western spurs, concerning to Western Tyan-Shan system and Turkestan, Zerafshan and Gissar ranges with their continuous on south-western - Babatag and Kugintangtau ranges, concerning to Gissar-Alay system.
Entering on territory of Uzbekistan its spurs formed radiating bundle of mountain chains, constantly less in north-western and south-western directions. The character example is Karjantau, Maygashkan and Surenata ranges in western Tyan-Shan system and Nuratau, Aktau and Kuratau ranges and Karatepa and Ziadin-Zirabulak mountains, being the last of Pamir-Alay.
Entering in Western Tyan-Shan system the mountain ranges (Karjantau, Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal, Kuramin) began from Talass Alatau (on border with Kirgizstan), further as fan radiate from here and continuos to north-east to south-west.
The more high point of Talass Alatau is mountain Manas (4482m). The high point of Chatkal range on territory of Uzbekistan - Greater Chimgan peak (3309 m). Between Chatkal and Kuramin ranges located Akhangaran valley.
The apexes of Western Tyan-Shan covered with snow and glaciers.
The Chatkal and Kuramin ranges border on north with Fergana valley. From east she borders with Fergana range, from south with Alay and Turkestan ranges. To north-west from Turkestan range raises the Malguzar range, to south-west Chumkartau range. Only the north slopes of Chumkartau entering on territory of Uzbekistan. The valley of Sanzar river separate the Malguzar mountains from Nuratau mountains. The weak point in this valley named Tamerlan gates.
The Nuratau mountains stretch on 180 km. Their north slope is steep, the south slope is gently sloping. The high point of North part of Nuratau mountains is Khayatbashi apex (2165 m). The south part of Nuratau mountains consists from separate apexes (Aktau, Karatau, Karagatau, Gabduntau).
On the south and as parallel to Turkestan range located Zarafshan range. With self eastern part he entering on territory of Tadjikistan. On south from Zarafshan range located Gissar range and his south-western spurs (Yakkobag, Surkhantau, Kugikantau, Baysuntau, Chakgar and other). Here located the highest point of Uzbekistan - the Khazret Sultan (4643 m).
In western part of Gissar range are two glaciers - Batirbay and Severcev. On south of Uzbekistan along of border with Tadjikistan located Babatag range. The high point - Zarkasa (2292 m). The main features of orography of Uzbekistan connected with features of geological structure of above-mentioned the mountain systems.
This bond found expression in these, that between mountain ranges located spacious foothill and intermountain depressions, the large from which is Tashkent-Golodnosteppe, Fergana Zarafshan, Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya.
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